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Promoter and enhancer

Enhancers can increase or decrease the activity of the promoter region. Promoter is the specific regulatory DNA sequence located at the 5' end of the transcriptional unit which initiates the transcription of the gene. Promoters and enhancers interact with each other during the gene expression Gene transcription is strictly controlled by the interplay of regulatory events at gene promoters and gene-distal regulatory elements called enhancers. Despite extensive studies of enhancers, we still have a very limited understanding of their mechanisms of action and their restricted spatio-temporal activities

Difference Between Enhancer and Promoter Compare the

Enhancer and promoter are specific DNA sequences associated with the genes and gene expression regulation. They are cis-acting elements. Enhancers can increase or decrease the activity of the promoter region. Promoter is the specific regulatory DNA sequenc The main difference between enhancer and promoter is that the enhancer is the DNA sequence to which the activators bind whereas the promoter is the DNA sequence to which RNA polymerase and other basal transcription factors bind An enhancer is a piece of DNA that enhances gene transcription. A promoter is a piece of DNA which acts to initiate or start gene transcription In contrast, promoter directionality, sequence composition surrounding promoters, and positional enrichment of chromatin states, are different across species. Integrative models of H3K4me3 levels and core promoter sequence are highly predictive of promoter and enhancer directionality and support two directional classes, skewed and balanced The remaining 478 interactions were reported to be enhancer-enhancer interactions. A global analysis of the interactions found that 9% of enhancers with long-range interactions interact with multiple promoters and 25% of interacting promoters have more than one long-range enhancer interaction

CTCF-Mediated Enhancer-Promoter Interaction Is a Critical

Over the past 20 years, broadly, three classes of fundamental regulatory elements controlling gene expression have emerged: enhancers, promoters and boundary elements. These elements switch genes.. An enhancer localized in a DNA region distant from the promoter of a gene can have a very large effect on gene expression, with some genes undergoing up to 100-fold increased expression due to an activated enhancer. Enhancers are regions of the genome that are major gene-regulatory elements Promoters and enhancers are usually mapped by integration of chromatin assays charting histone modifications, DNA accessibility, and transcription factor binding. However, current algorithms are limited by unrealistic data distribution assumptions

Unterschied zwischen Enhancer und Promoter Das Hauptunterschied zwischen Enhancer und Promoter ist das Der Enhancer ist die DNA-Sequenz, an die die Aktivatoren binden, während der Promotor die DNA-Sequenz ist, an die RNA-Polymerase und andere basale Transkriptionsfaktoren binden Enhancer-promoter regulation is a fundamental mechanism underlying differential transcriptional regulation. Spatial chromatin organization brings remote enhancers in contact with target promoters in cis to regulate gene expression. There is considerable evidence for promoter-enhancer interactions (PEIs)

Enhancer regions are binding sequences, or sites, for transcription factors. When a DNA-bending protein binds to an enhancer, the shape of the DNA changes. This shape change allows the interaction between the activators bound to the enhancers and the transcription factors bound to the promoter region and the RNA polymerase to occur It remains unclear why acute depletion of CTCF and cohesin only marginally affects expression of most genes despite substantially perturbing 3D genome folding at the level of domains and structural loops. To address this conundrum, we used high-resolution Micro-C and nascent transcript profiling to find that enhancer-promoter (E-P) interactions are largely insensitive to acute (3-hour. An enhancer is a sequence of DNA works to enhance transcription whereas promoter is a series of DNA that initiates transcription. An enhancer can upstream or downstream from the site where transcription is initiating while promoters are situated near the transcription start sites of genes, on the same strand and upstream on the DNA

This interaction could allow the delivery of enhancer-bound transcription factors and RNA polymerase II to the promoter to activate or enhance transcription. The regulation of promoter activity appears to be very complex, since promoters often interact with multiple enhancers, and promoters and enhancers also interact with each other. Fold enrichment of H3K27ac promoter or enhancer gains at each human time point in this module. * P < 0.01 (BH-corrected permutation). ( C ) Genes in the related FGF, TGFβ, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), and ECM signaling pathways are associated with gains from module 10 (yellow stars) and module 3 (red stars)

Promoter or enhancer, what's the difference

What is the Difference Between Enhancer and Promoter

  1. The primary promoter-enhancer contact is commonly established by a distal enhancer. We constructed regulatory element networks of interactions among regulatory elements in GM12878, HMEC, HUVEC, and K562 cell lines [].Similar to the ribonucleic acid polymerase II (RNAPII)-associated chromatin interaction network [], all enhancers and promoters were denoted as vertices, while the significant.
  2. The highest activity was exhibited by the CHEF-1α promoter, with an MFI 2.18-fold that of the CMV promoter, 24.86-fold that of the PGK promoter, and 8.29-fold that of the CAG enhancer. Figure
  3. PrESSto: Promoter Enhancer Slider Selector Tool. Select enhancers and promoters based on tissue and cell specificity using sliders
  4. In genetics, a promoter is a sequence of DNA to which proteins bind that initiate transcription of a single RNA from the DNA downstream of it. This RNA may encode a protein, or can have a function in and of itself, such as tRNA, mRNA, or rRNA.Promoters are located near the transcription start sites of genes, upstream on the DNA (towards the 5' region of the sense strand)
  5. Setting the PPARγ2 promoter as an anchor point, we investigated the interactions between the promoter and different regions of the locus using fragments generated by PvuII and StuI, which generate cleavage fragments that include both the −10 kb enhancer and the proximal promoter region

The integrated analysis of promoter and enhancer activities identifies subset-specific gene regulation networks and provides a valuable resource on gene expression and regulation in Treg and Tconv subsets. This work is part of the Functional Annotation of Mammalian Genome 5 (FANTOM5) project Enhancer and promoter are specific DNA sequences associated with the genes and gene expression regulation. They are cis-acting elements. Enhancers can increase or decrease the activity of the promoter region. Promoter is the specific regulatory DNA sequenc ENHANCER AND PROMOTER INTERACTIONS . by Bing He A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor of Philosophy degree in Genetics in the Graduate College of The University of Iowa December 2015 Thesis Supervisor: Associate Professor Kai Tan When an enhancer interacts with a promoter, consistent with the transcriptional factories proposed previously [47, 48], almost all enhancers in the same enhancer cluster interact with almost all promoters in the corresponding promoter cluster. It is thus important to consider the relationship among enhancers and among promoters when studying.

Various chimaeric promoter regions coupled to the uidA β-glucuronidase gene were evaluated for transient expression strength following electroporation into sugar-cane (monocot) and carrot (dicot) protoplasts. Multiple enhancer elements increased expression in sugar-cane, by up to 400-fold for the artificial Emu promoter relative to the CaMV 35S promoter Results Enhancer Action from a Distance Requires Upstream Promoter Elements. To investigate whether the IFN-β enhancer can activate transcription at a distance from the core promoter, we transfected HeLa cells with the constructs shown in Fig. 1.In the natural cis arrangement, the IFN-β enhancer/core promoter responds to virus infection by stimulating transcription ≈100-fold (line 1) Furthermore, promoters with bidirectional transcription harbored some enhancer activity, appearing to function as an enhancer and promoter for the same gene, similar to recent results in human cells (Dao et al. 2017). In contrast, the majority of promoters with unidirectional transcription did not show enhancer activity, and the endogenous.

Difference Between Enhancer and Promoter Difference Betwee

Co-localized combinations of histone modifications (chromatin states) have been shown to correlate with promoter and enhancer activity. Changes in chromatin states over multiple time points (chromatin state trajectories) have previously been analyzed at promoter and enhancers separately. With the advent of time series Hi-C data it is now possible to connect promoters and enhancers. Key Difference - Promoter vs Operator. DNA sequences other than the coding region of a gene are vital in performing various functions in relation to the process of transcription.Transcription is the enzyme-catalyzed process that transcribes or converts the DNA strand into its similar mRNA strand.In the central dogma of life, transcription of DNA to mRNA is the first phase of protein synthesis

Preparing Promoter and Enhancer Datasets. For building a DL model with CAGE (Cap Analysis Gene Expression) data, we prepared the enhancer and promoter dataset defined by the previous study (Colbran et al., 2019), including 38,538 enhancers and 27,227 promoters. These elements have been defined as flanking 300 base pair (bp) regions for each. MSCV. Murine embryonic stem cell virus promoter including the enhancer and promoter region of PCMV virus and 5' untranslated region of dl-587rev retrovirus. Medium-strength promoter; drives gene expression in most murine or human ES cell lines and other mammalian cell lines. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 87:9202 (1990); Gene Ther. 1:136 (1994) View

The integrated analysis of promoter and enhancer activities identifies subset-specific gene regulation networks and provides a valuable resource on gene expression and regulation in Treg and Tconv subsets. This work is part of the Functional Annotation of Mammalian Genome 5 (FANTOM5) project Enhancer to Promoter Douglas Vernimmen1,* and Wendy A. Bickmore2 Regulatory elements (enhancers) that are remote from promoters play a critical role in the spatial, temporal, and physiological control of gene expression. Studies on specific loci, together with genome-wide approaches, suggest that there Othe

We propose that enhancer-blockers and silencing barrier-insulators might have evolved as specialized derivatives of promoters and that the two types of element use related mechanisms to mediate. An enhancer complex may interact with promoter complexes by bringing the sites into direct contact. >> by contact of the enhancer with RNApol complex.. transcription is initiated.. a bit like a switch.. Silencer DNA sequences are the opposite to enhancer sequences. They decrease or suppress the rate of transcription the enhancer and the promoter loops out as the enhancer complex moves progressively along the chromatin fiber toward the promoter. The physical proximity between the enhancer and the target promoter stimulates assembly of a functional pre-initiation complex on the promoter, thus causing activation of transcription Like promoters, the CNS2 regulatory region is necessary for transcription initiation and promotion, but it displays orientation-independent activity in driving and potentiating transcriptional output, functions traditionally attributed to enhancer elements. Combining promoter and enhancer functions, the CNS2 element directs its own.

Determinants of promoter and enhancer transcription

New function of a well‐known promoter: enhancer activity of minimal CMV promoter enables efficient dual‐cassette transgene expression July 2021 The Journal of Gene Medicin Enhancer-Promoter Selectivity. Cognate enhancer-promoter interactions are important not only when an enhancer must select the correct promoter over a large distance, but also when an enhancer must activate only one of multiple promoters in its immediate vicinity. Two possible mechanisms by which enhancer-promoter selectivity might be achieved. In summary, promoter sequence elements and the chromatin signature of enhancer TSSs differ from those of protein-coding genes.We next examined whether transcription initiation at enhancers was productively elongated or, alternatively, whether initiation events generally produced short transcripts promoter. enhancer: 2.Can be __ or __of the promoter, and even in an ___. upstream ,downstream , intron. enhancer: 3.Still function when removed and reinserted in the opp___ orientation. opposite. enhancer: 4.___-__ function (or at least for classes of genes) Gene. Activator proteins interact with regulatory promoter elements & have 2 ___

Mapping enhancer and promoter interaction

Downloadable (with restrictions)! The functional engagement between an enhancer and its target promoter ensures precise gene transcription1. Understanding the basis of promoter choice by enhancers has important implications for health and disease. Here we report that functional loss of a preferred promoter can release its partner enhancer to loop to and activate an alternative promoter (or. Start studying Promoters vs. Enhancers. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools

early enhancer and the chicken β-actin promoter), have been exploited to achieve the high-level expres-sion of various genes [19,20]. In our previous study, we investigated enhan Nevertheless, the enhancer can't physically engage with its target promoter. Transcription may make enhancer more mobile Pavri and his lab hypothesised that Spt5 depletion reduces 3'RR transcription, which inhibits the interaction between the 3'RR and the promoter. To test their hypothesis, they restored transcription of two of four. Figure5.enhancer and promoter use di erent topics. If we use topics learned from enhancer/promoter corpus to predict promoter/enhancer, the perplexity is not good as using enhancer/promoter corpus to predict enhancer/promoter, which indicate separate modeling for enhancer and promoter are necessary. 4Dat miRNAs are well known to be gene repressors. A newly identified class of miRNAs termed nuclear activating miRNAs (NamiRNAs), transcribed from miRNA loci that exhibit enhancer features, promote gene expression via binding to the promoter and enhancer marker regions of the target genes. Meanwhile, activated enhancers produce endogenous non-coding RNAs (named enhancer RNAs, eRNAs) to activate.

Enhancer-promoter interactions and transcription Nature

The enhancer and promoter landscape of human regulatory and conventional T cell subpopulations. Their ability to avert immune reactions makes regulatory T cells (Treg) highly interesting for clinical application. This FANTOM5 study investigates transcription factor networks in naïve and memory Treg and their conventional T cell (Tconv. Enhancer functions have also been mapped to the gag (ALSV) and gag-pol (SIV and HIV) regions of some viruses but their role in the virus life cycle has yet to be established. In any case, all of the requisite signals for gene expression are found in the LTRs: Enhancer, promoter, transcription initiation (capping), transcription terminator and. The recognition between an enhancer and its cognate promoter in eukaryotes ensures proper gene transcription output. However, both the biological basis and the pathological involvement of enhancer-promoter recognition remain poorly understood

a. An enhancer element can activate a promoter when placed up to several thousand bases from the promoter b. An enhancer can activate a promoter when placed in either orientation relative to the promoter c. An enhancer can activate a promoter when placed upstream or downstream of the transcribed, or within an intervening sequence, which is removed from the RNA by splicing individual promoter loci revealed that both promoters follow a unified scheme of three-state transcription kinetics. Cooperative Bcd binding at either enhancer can drive a promoter to a weak active state, while additional Bcd binding at the second enhancer can turn the promoter to full-power transcription

Biology in Focus - Chapter 15

Enhancer (genetics) - Wikipedi

Accurate Promoter and Enhancer Identification in 127

The promoter strength for core promoter (including enhancer II) and X promoter is one order of magnitude lower than that of CMV. The overall order of activity based on the luciferase activity is as follows: CMV > C, X > S1, S2. In vivo, the CMV promoter provides the highest luciferase expression also, and the S1, X promoter exhibit the lowest. The degree of DNA methylation of the WT1 promoter, 5′ enhancer, intron 3 enhancer and 3′ enhancer was determined using quantitative methylation‐specific PCR, bisulfite sequencing and pyrosequencing. Results. Both WT1 mRNA and protein expression were reduced by long‐term treatment with TGF‐β1 AAV-mediated transgene expression in vivo from the hybrid promoter was marginally lower than that observed for AAV vectors encoding the strong CAG promoter, but greatly reduced in the heart, making this promoter/enhancer combination attractive for non-cardiac applications, particularly respiratory tract or liver directed therapies IgM reversion assay of various promoter-substituted and enhancer-deleted cell lines. (A) The percentages of surface IgM + cells at day 28 for the cell types indicated along the x axis; cells of all generations are included. Each dot represents a subclone of the indicated cell type, and the black bar marks the median of each group

Was ist der Unterschied zwischen Enhancer und Promoter

In the loop: promoter-enhancer interactions and

Identify promoter, enhancer and silencer sequences by browsing the epigenomic markers generated by the ENCODE project (Part3) (5:00) Identify upstream regulatory key molecules for a list of co-expressed gene Initiation and regulation of transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) in eukaryotes rely on the transcriptional regulatory elements. Promoters and enhancers share similar architectures and functions, and the prevailing view is that they can initiate bidirectional transcription. We summarize functional roles of enhancer transcription and possible mechanisms in enhancer-promoter communication

Mammalian expression promoter from the simian vacuolating virus 40: Constitutive : May include an enhancer. PGK1 (human or mouse) General expression: mRNA: Mammalian promoter from phosphoglycerat e kinase gene. Constitutive : Widespread expression, but may vary by cell type. Tends to resist promoter down regulation due to methylation or. PROMOTERS & TERMINATORS. A. Bacterial SAPPHIRE Sequence Analyser for the Prediction of Prokaryote Homology Inferred Regulatory Elements - is a neural network based classifier for σ70 promoter prediction in Pseudomonas (Reference: Coppens L & Lavigne R (2020) BMC Bioinformatics 21(1): 415).. 70ProPred - is a predictor for discovering sigma70 promoters based on combining multiple features. The Krt4 promoter had the highest trapping efficiency (64% at 12 hpf and 67.1% at 72 hpf, n = 302 and n = 301) and the strongest basic expression. To detect enhancer activity, chicken 5′HS4 double insulators were cloned into the two ET vectors with the Gata or Krt4 minimal promoter, flanking the mCherry expression box To improve the killing efficacy, double suicide gene, dual-promoter, a promoter plus an enhancer and double enhancers, etc. have been employed. Kong et al [ 24 ] have exploited adenovirus-mediated TK/CD double suicide genes, which are more effective in killing breast cancer cells in vitro [CANCER RESEARCH 60, 334-341, January 15, 2000] Prostate-specific Antigen Promoter/Enhancer Driven Gene Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Construction and Testing of a Tissue-specific Adenovirus Vector1 James P. F. Latham, Peter F. Searle, Vivien Mautner, and Nicholas D. James2 CRC Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TA, United Kingdo

enhancer; remote control element; promoter; tethering element; Drosophila; The precise spatial and temporal patterning of gene expression is a fundamental feature of embryonic development (Davidson and Erwin 2006; Lagha et al. 2012; Peter and Davidson 2015).These patterns of expression are governed by enhancer elements within cis-regulatory regions that direct the initiation of transcription. The degree of enhancer or promoter activity is reflected by the levels and directionality of eRNA transcription 29 January 2018 | Genes & Development, Vol. 32, No. 1 Drosophila female-specific Ilp7 motoneurons are generated by Fruitless-dependent cell death in males and by a double-assurance survival role for Transformer in female Plasmid pGL3-mArg1 promoter/enhancer -31/-3810 from Dr. Peter Murray's lab contains the insert Arg1 promoter/enhancer -31/-3810 and is published in J Immunol. 2004 Jun 15;172(12):7565-73. This plasmid is available through Addgene

tomtom output for top 6-mer in other enhancer and promoter classifiers hocomoco/ (Fig 5) jaspar/ (Figs S11 & S12)\ tf_counts/ overall broad and narrow tf counts in regions (Fig. 5) About. supplementary materials for Sequence characteristics distinguish transcribed enhancers from promoters and predict their breadth of activity Resources. Abstract. Promoters initiate RNA synthesis, and enhancers stimulate promoter activity. Whether promoter and enhancer activities are encoded distinctly in DNA sequences is unknown. We measured the enhancer and promoter activities of thousands of DNA fragments transduced into mouse neurons. We focused on genomic loci bound by the neuronal. The GREB1 enhancer, promoter, biotin-labeled enhancer (Bio-enhancer), and bio-promoter double-strand DNA fragments were synthesized by PCR and purified by using GenElute TM gel extraction kit (NA1111, Sigma). Purified enhancer and bio-promoter DNA or promoter and bio-enhancer DNA (40 ng each) were mixed with 70 μg of nuclear extract proteins.

Enhancer dan promoter adalah sekuens DNA spesifik yang terkait dengan gen dan regulasi ekspresi gen. Mereka adalah elemen akting cis. Enhancer dapat menambah atau mengurangi aktivitas wilayah promotor. Promotor adalah urutan DNA pengatur spesifik yang terletak di ujung 5 'unit transkripsi yang memulai transkripsi gen. Promotor dan peningkat. The promoter strength for core promoter (including enhancer II) is at the same order of magnitude of CMV. The overall order of activity based on the luciferase activity is as follows: CMV > C > S2 > S1, X. 3.2. Enhancer regulation of HBV S1 and S2 promoter activities in vitro and in viv The elastase enhancer can activate the heterologous mouse metallothionein gene and the hGH gene promoters; conversely, enhancers from the thymocyte-specific murine leukemia virus MCF13 and the metal regulatory elements from the metallothionein gene can activate the elastase promoter in a variety of cell types The LNCaP cells were transfected by electroporation with constructs bearing the minimal 5′ promoter PSA or constructs containing 1-3 copies of the PSA enhancer upstream of the PSA (pPSA EnP) and hKLK2 (phKLK2 EnP) 5′ promoters. Cells were cotransfected with the pCMV-βgal construct, and control cells were transfected with pCMV-GL3

16.3B: Transcriptional Enhancers and Repressors - Biology ..

Geschichte. 1981 wurde zum ersten Mal ein Enhancer beschrieben. Er stammt aus dem Polyomavirus SV40 und enthält zwei identische, 72 bp lange Abschnitte, die 72-Wiederholungssequenzen (72-bp repeat) heißen.Jeder der beiden Abschnitte hat für sich allein bereits eine schwach verstärkende Wirkung auf den Promoter, gemeinsam verstärken sie die Aktivität um ein Vielfaches Live Streaming The most reliable way to stream video. Get starte The present invention provides polynucleotide molecules useful for expressing transgenes in plants. More particularly, the present invention provides chimeric promoters comprising rice actin 1 promoters fused with Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S enhancers. The present invention also provides expression constructs containing the chimeric promoter Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) induces tumors in the distal airways of sheep and goats. A putative intragenic enhancer, termed JE, localized to the 3′ end of the JSRV env gene, has been previously described. Herein we provide further evidence that the JE functions as a transcriptional enhancer, as it was able to enhance gene expression when placed in either forward or reverse orientation. T1 - The human CD34 hematopoietic stem cell antigen promoter and a 3' enhancer direct hematopoietic expression in tissue culture. AU - Burn, Timothy C. AU - Satterthwaite, Anne B. AU - Tenen, Daniel G. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - The human CD34 hematopoietic stem cell antigen is a highly glycosylated type I membrane protein of unknown function

Enhancer-promoter interactions and transcription are

Cloning the human RUNX1c P1 promoter and +24 enhancer to drive expression of tdTomato (tdTom) in hESCs and iPSCs, we demonstrate that tdTom expression faithfully enriches for RUNX1c-expressing hematopoietic progenitor cells. Time-lapse microscopy demonstrated the tdTom + hematopoietic cells to emerge from adherent cells To demonstrate a causal role between hijacked enhancers and CCNE1 expression, we selected the tandem duplication-associated enhancer event for testing, as this enhancer is the nearest SV to the CCNE1 promoter, associated with cis-interactions with the CCNE1 promoter, and exhibits high H3K27ac signals The CMV enhancer-promoter sequence is often used as a transcriptional regulatory element in vector systems. We have used this control element to drive expression of GFP in a lentivirus vector transgene in pigs and chickens. Promoted as a 'universal' enhancer/promoter element capable of transcriptional activity in a number of cells in vitro, CMV. enhancer也有可能在不相关基因的exon里。. Enhancers do not act on the promoter region itself, but are bound by activator proteins. These activator proteins interact with the mediator complex, which recruits polymerase II and the general transcription factors which then begin transcribing the genes. 确定enhancer的位置至关重要! The aim of the present study was to construct a gene‑modified hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)‑specific analgesic‑antitumor peptide (AGAP) expression vector regulated by the α‑fetoprotein (AFP) promoter and enhancer, in order to evaluate its effect. The AFP promoter is generally used in HCC‑specific gene therapy strategies. However, this approach is limited by the weak activity of the.

Difference Between Enhancer and Promoter - Difference Wik

Notably, MYMLR is distinct from these previously reported lncRNAs in that it is transcribed as a divergent lncRNA arising from a point only 350 bp upstream of the MYC promoter, and elicits long-range genome looping between the 557 kb upstream enhancer and MYC promoter (Fig 5G) Established in the year 2012 at Nashik, Maharashtra, we Orchid Crop Science are a Sole Proprietorship based firm, engaged as the foremost Manufacturer , Wholesaler and Trader of Organic Pesticides, Bio Innovative, etc.Our products are high in demand due to their premium quality, seamless finish, different patterns and affordable prices Furthermore, in HTR-8 and HEK293, IGF2-DMR0 did not enhance the activities of any of the promoters (Supplemental Figure S3). These results were consistent with the promoter usage profiles of the three cell lines and indicate that IGF2-DMR0 functioned as an enhancer of the P0b promoter in a cell-type-specific manner Our data demonstrated that JMJD2C could enhance the metastatic abilities of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo by regulating the histone methylation level of MALAT1 promoter, thereby up-regulating the expression of MALAT1 and enhancing the activity of β-catenin signaling pathway, providing that JMJD2C might be a novel therapeutic target for CRC. Programs of gene expression are executed by a battery of transcription factors that coordinate divergent transcription from a pair of tightly linked core initiation regions of promoters and enhancers. Here, to investigate how divergent transcription is reprogrammed upon stress, we measured nascent RNA synthesis at nucleotide-resolution, and profiled histone H4 acetylation in human cells

Mechanisms of egfr Gene Transcription ModulationCRISPR/Cas9-mediated knock-in strategy using the hsp70GAL4:GFP enhancer trap systemSelective Regulation of c-jun Gene Expression by MitogenThe Activation of MAPK in Melanoma Cells Resistant to BRAF